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 اهم وافضل المعالم السياحية في مصر

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masrawistar
المدير العام



صندوق آخر مواضيع العضو : last posts
صورة بياناتي
تاريخ التسجيل: 24/12/2007
بلد الإقــامة: egypt
المـهــــــنة: Engineer
الجـــــــنــــــــس: ذكر
المشـــــاركــــات: 3163

مُساهمةموضوع: اهم وافضل المعالم السياحية في مصر   الإثنين 3 يناير - 22:44










Citadel of Salah al-Din




And
about Saladin's Citadel on the island of Pharaoh, 10 km from the city
of Aqaba and away from the beach Sinai 250 m and represents the value
of historical significant cultural and oversees on the border of 4
countries Saudi Arabia and Jordan and occupied Palestine and Egypt
established by Saladin in 567 AH in 1171 to repel the raids the
Crusaders and the protection of the pilgrimage route of Egypt across
the Sinai and had a role Great in protecting the Sinai of the Crusader
invasion When besieged by Prince came when the fortress of Karak in
1182 with a view to closing the Red Sea in the face of Muslims and the
monopoly of trade in the Far East and the Indian Ocean to take over Ayla
north (Aqaba), and Aden in the south sent a garrison in the castle a
letter to the Central Command in Cairo over the bathroom Carrier pigeons
and a tower of the pigeon inside the castle was opposed by his
equitable Abu Bakr Job instructions from his brother Salah al-Din had
prepared a fleet strong in the Red Sea, led eyebrow Husam al-Din Pearl
Admiral of the Fleet Diyarbakir Egypt besieged boats Frankish and
burned and the families of the and track to the shores of the Hijaz,
was a prelude to the battle of Hattin Battle Dignity and pride and the
recovery of the Arab and Islamic rights in Palestine












Egyptian Museum




A
few miles from the west of Cairo, near the Pyramids of Giza, built the
largest museum in the world raised the Pharaonic, an area of 117 acres,
which is equal to the size of six football pitches, to accommodate 5
million visitors in addition to buildings, commercial services,
recreational and restoration center and the park museum, which would be
created by trees that were known to the ancient Egyptian. The Egypt
launched a campaign to fund the project, estimated to cost about $ 550
million, and was a contribution from Japan with 300 million of them, a
soft loan, but the first attempt to raise money for the construction of
this imposing edifice, represented in the new exhibition of Egyptian
antiquities in the Museum of Arts in the city of Los Angeles States
United States, under the banner "Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of
Pharaohs." Was scheduled to open the new museum in 2009, but was
postponed the opening date of the big museum until 2012 is scheduled to
include the museum more than 100,000 artifacts from the Pharaonic era,
Greek and Romanian, which means to give a big boost for the tourism
sector in Egypt, held Museum New on the desert plain at the edge of the
Nile Valley, where the visitor sees the pyramids of Giza.
The golden mask of King Tutankhamun, the small
The
main entrance of the museum begins with the gate Altheltp giant, which
leads the visitor to the main courtyard of the museum, which Sitsderha
giant statue of Pharaoh Ramses II












Temple of Philae on the island of Ijileka




The
island of Philae, is an island in the middle of the River Nile, one of
the forts the strongest along the borders of southern Egypt, are
separated by the Nile to the two channels Maackstin in Aswan, the
Temple of Philae and moved from its original location on the island of
Philae was assembled on the island of Ijileka, in the wake of the High
Dam [1].
This is because the
name of the elephants or Philae to the Greek language, which means
(beloved) or (grains), but the Arabic name to her that he (Anas exist),
the proportion of the myth of Anas in the story of the Thousand and One
Nights The name of the ancient Egyptian and Coptic is Bilak or Bilak and
means to reduce or end because it was The last border of Egypt in the
south. And a set of worship dedicated to the worship of the goddess Isis
is that the island contained the temples of Hathor and Amenhotep, and
other temples.












Temple of Karnak




Karnak
Temple of Luxor in Egypt signs deals where he was the king of all
kings, successive attempts to make the most magnificent temple. The
characteristic from his predecessor, then turned to the temples of
Karnak to the complete guide and a variety show stages of the evolution
of ancient Egyptian art and architecture Pharaonic deals.
Characterized
by the great temple of Karnak Sound and Light offers charming, held
every evening, which is a great way to discover the Temple of Karnak. Km
distance between Luxor and Karnak 3 kilometers, on both sides of the
road punctuated by a large number of small statues of the Sphinx, or
what is known as the path of rams. The Temple of Karnak, the largest
house of worship on earth gate












Luxor Temple




Temple
of Luxor Temple of Great temples of ancient Egyptian complex is
located on the east bank of the River Nile in Luxor today known as the
(ancient Thebes). Founded in 1400 BC.
Luxor
Temple was built for the worship of Amun-Re, the death of his wife and
their son Khonsu; the gods also called Tibi title Trinity (Trinity
good). Luxor Temple was built during the reign of the kings of the
Eighteenth Dynasty, and the Nineteenth Dynasty. The most important
temple of existing buildings are those built by the kings Amenhotep III
(1397-1360 BC. m.) and Ramses II (1290-1223 BC. m.) (which added to the
temple courtyard and the open architecture and Almslten). Also set up
King Tuthmosis III (1490-1436 BC. m.) booths for visitors to holy
trinity of good, as the Tutankhamun (1348-1337 BC. m.) completed the
inscriptions walls. The cabin was destroyed three that had been
constructed before the reign of Queen Hatshepsut and King Tuthmosis III
(of the Eighteenth Dynasty); and then rebuilt in the reign of King
Ramses II.
The temple is also
called "Iept Ilandz" (meaning on the south, or place your Amun Ra) [1].
One of the best-preserved Egyptian temples and the most beautiful
building, which reflected planning Egyptian temple that is most evident












Sphinx




Sphinx
or Sphinx is the teacher of the features Almtheologip appeared in
ancient Egyptian civilization, and specifically the old state, have
varied opinions as represented by this statue, opinion old that it
represents King Khafre, combining strength of the lion and the wisdom of
man, and the fact that the statue was carved during the reign of
Khafre, but it represents the sun god "Poplar - M - Acht," and evidence
of this temple, which faces the statue where the conduct has the
Sacraments, has been so firmly in the minds of Egyptians throughout
their history where they saw a statue of the god "Poplar - M - Acht",
and Kano worship him and live paintings by his most famous paintings of
those of King Tuthmosis IV of the Eighteenth Dynasty, known as the dream
board. Either by the name "Sphinx" and the etymology of language to
him, it seems that the origin is due to the modern state when he took
some of the Canaanites to the Giza area and saw the statue, which
represents the god "Hur" and tied between him and the god they have is
"Huron" and character of this name to "Horona "character, which in turn
to the" Hall ", where base substitution between ha and a distraction in
the Arabic language. As for the word "father" of Phippdoa it a
perversion of the ancient Egyptian word "Boo", which means "place", in
this case, the name meaning "place of the god Hor", the ancient Greeks
with their own version of female reproduction of that object.
She
also appeared creatures and similar ideas in several other
civilizations, including South and Southeast Asia. Sphinx also occupied a
place in European decorative art from the Renaissance began.












Pyramids




Pyramids
of Giza pyramids of Egypt or Giza Plateau is located in the governorate
of Giza in Egypt on the west bank of the Nile River was built by about
25 centuries BC, about 2480-2550 BC. M, which is about three are the
pyramids of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure.
Al-Ahram
is a cemetery ownership of each of them bears the name of the king who
built and buried it after his death, and building the pyramid here is
the stage of the evolution of building tombs in ancient Egypt, which
started in a hole that small turned into a chamber under the ground and
then to a few rooms topped by a terrace and then evolved to take the
form of pyramid by architect Imhotep, the Minister of Pharaoh Djoser in
the Third Dynasty pyramid found in the necropolis of Saqqara, followed
by the attempts of the king Bent founder of the Fourth Dynasty to build a
pyramid full, but the back of pyramids is Salimi shape and are located
at Dahshur one flat base and the other took the form smaller after half
size, and was able to engineer Hmeono engineer to reach King Cheops
pyramid shape of the ideal and the construction of the pyramid of Cheops
at Giza area of 13 acres and was followed by a pyramid of Khafre and
Menkaure.
Bent Pyramid at Dahshur
Many
people believe that the greatness of the pyramid lies in a constructive
way, in fact, to talk this part of the health pyramid biggest example
is the Mount industrial weighing six million five hundred thousand tons,
which is made of stones, each weighing twelve tons, and these stones
Court Paving and settings to a half a millimeter, and this really
deserves all the admiration for the ancient Egyptian civilization, but
it is much larger, is one of the largest pyramid puzzles that have faced
since the beginning of human civilization. Has claimed a lot of people
that just a cemetery luxury of the king (Cheops), but modern scientists
now believe that this is an object of ridicule, has been building the
Great Pyramid for the purpose of a higher and greater than that much
evidence for this is that the facts amazing enjoy this great edifice,
which collected by Charles Smith in the famous book (our heritage at the
Great Pyramid) in 1864, as the high pyramid multiplied by one billion
is equal to 14.967 million km, the distance between the Earth and the
sun, the orbit that passes from the center of the pyramid divides the
continents of the world into two equal halves completely, and that the
basis of the pyramid divided by twice the height gives us a number (for
Odolf) famous (3.14) and is located in the calculators, and elements of
the pyramid of four heading to the four directions in the accuracy of so
amazing that some scientists objected days under the pretext of the
existence of angle deviation are few cardinal, but after the discovery
of modern electronic equipment to measure proved to be corners of the
pyramid is the most correct and accurate.
A map of the Giza Pyramids Complex
As
for the pyramid of the pharaoh of Kaora famous Bmenkera, the scientists
observed that it contains a gap small circular to a maximum diameter of
20 cm and enables archaeologists to know the secret of the existence of
the gap after noticing a very accurate, as it was found that sunlight
entering through the gap, one day only in the year on the tomb of the
pharaoh Kaora completely and even odder that this day is consistent with
the gala birthday of the pharaoh.












Temple of Karnak




Abdul
signs of Karnak in Luxor, Egypt deals where he was the king of all
kings, successive attempts to make the most magnificent temple. The
characteristic from his predecessor, then turned to the temples of
Karnak to the complete guide and a variety show stages of the evolution
of ancient Egyptian art and architecture Pharaonic deals.
Characterized
by the great temple of Karnak Sound and Light offers charming, held
every evening, which is a great way to discover the Temple of Karnak. Km
distance between Luxor and Karnak 3 kilometers, on both sides of the
road punctuated by a large number of small statues of the Sphinx, or
what is known as the path of rams. The Temple of Karnak, the largest
house of worship on earth gated












Citadel of Saladin in Cairo




Citadel
of Saladin in Cairo, Egypt. Built by Saladin in the period 1176 until
1183, using prisoners of Norman. He said to Muhammad Ali mosque. Was the
headquarters for the rule of Egypt since the days of Saladin (1183)
until the transfer of Khedive Ismail, the seat of government to Abdeen
Palace, which was built for this purpose in the contract of 1860.
Citadel of Salah al-Din is located in the neighborhood of the castle -
the successor - has been erected on one of the hills are separated from
the cliffs on the outskirts of Cairo.
The
Citadel of Salah al-Din in Cairo of the most prestigious castles of
warfare which was built in the Middle Ages, Muhammad Ali mosque inside a
strategic first-class as provided by this site of the importance of
defense because it controls the cities of Cairo and Fustat, as it
constitutes a natural barrier up between the two cities as it is on this
site can provide connectivity between the castle and the city in a
state of siege as they will become the last bastion of a sit-in the case
if the city fell to the enemy.
Castle
towering over this many, many historical events which saw the walls of
different historical events through the ages Ayyubid, Mamluk and the
time of the French campaign on Egypt in the year 1798, and even took
over the rule of Mohammed Ali Pasha of Egypt, where he restored her
prosperity and greatness. The Sultan al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn
Ayyub first thought of building a castle on the hill the sound in in 572
AH / 1176, where he and the minister Bahauddin Karakus Assadi
demolition of mosques and tombs that were on the sound so that building a
castle, where it is the workers carved the rock and the creation of a
trench artificially separation of the cliffs on the sound increase in
the vulnerability and strength.












Alexandria Library




Historians
disagree about the person who built the library, there are those who
say that Alexander placed in the layout when building Alexandria [5] It
is the idea of construction [6] and some say that Ptolemy I is built and
others say it was Toisseha at the hands of Ptolemy II [1] Battabar that
is completed Fbtalmeos first is the one who ordered the establishment
of the library and the organization at its own expense, and then
complete that his successor, Ptolemy II. [7] the collection of Demetrius
Alvalery Greek nucleus of the Library of Alexandria, which is in
Greece, [7], who was working as an adviser to Ptolemy I [8] [9], a
system library [10] has been developed planning architectural and
objectively so that they reflect the balance of Greek thought and
science of the times. [6] There is a difference in the year that was
created when there are those who say Onhaoncit in 330 BC [11] and there
Who says it was created in 288 BC
The Library of Alexandria property
first and the greatest library known to history and remained the largest
libraries of its time, established the Library of Alexandria at the
hands of the successors of Alexander the Great more than two thousand
years to the largest collection of books in the ancient world and which
now have reached that time to 700 thousand volumes, including works of
Homer and the Library Aristotle.
Ptolemy
is the first created 330 BC it was spending lavishly during the reign
of Ptolemy II, where he Ptusatha and add extensions to it, a library has
a huge number of books and manuscripts reached 700,000 Folder












Bey Citadel




This
castle is located at the end of the island of Pharos maximum west of
Alexandria. And constructed in place of the Lighthouse of Alexandria
which was destroyed years old 702 e Following the devastating earthquake
that occurred in the reign of Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad. Has begun to
Sultan al-Ashraf Abu Al-Nasr Bey build this castle in the year 882 AH
and finished building 884 years old. The reason for his interest in
Alexandria, the large number of direct threats to Egypt by the Ottoman
Empire, which threatened the entire Arab region.
And take the castle
square shape with an area of 150 m * 130 m, surrounded by sea on three
sides. It contains the castle walls and the main tower. The walls are
divided into wall internal and external. Valsor procedure includes the
soldiers barracks and arms depots. The outer wall of the castle fitted
in the bodies of the four defensive towers to rise to the level of the
wall with the exception of the eastern wall loss includes slots
defensive soldiers.
And take the
main tower in the inner courtyard is a fortress large square shape with
sides of 30 meters and a height of 17 meters and consists Castle of
three floors and there in the corners of the tower of the four towers,
semi-circular ends of the top balcony prominent include openings to
throw darts at two levels and running the first floor of a mosque
Castle, which consists of a nave and four iwans defensive and corridors
allow soldiers to easily pass through the defense of the castle. and
this was the minaret of the mosque, but it broke down recently.
The
second floor contains the corridors, halls and rooms at home. The third
floor houses a large room (seat Sultan Qait Bay) sits down to see the
ships on a day's journey from Alexandria is covered by an intersecting
vault as there is in the oven floor for the preparation of land, bread
made from wheat, as well as the mill to grind grain for the soldiers
living in the castle. The new Sultan Qansuh Ghouri Castle and increased
the garrison of this castle has been neglected in the Ottoman occupation
of Egypt. Bey Citadel established the fortress of Sultan Malik
al-Ashraf Abu Al-Nasr Bey Mahmoudi year 882 AH / 1477 place of Mannar
ancient Alexandria at the eastern tip of the island of Pharos in the
late Mamluk state, which is about building a separate length of 60
meters, and width 50 meters, and the thickness of walls 4.5 meters.
This
was Al-Manar had been destroyed following the earthquake in AH 702 days
of King al-Nasir Muhammad, who ordered the restoration after it was
destroyed after several years until destroyed all its parts the year 777
AH / 1375.
When he visited the
Sultan Bey in Alexandria year 882 AH / 1477 went to the site of the old
and the Al-Manar is to build on the basis of the old tower, later known
as Castle or Fortress of Bey of construction was completed after two
years from the date of construction.
Because
Bey Citadel in Alexandria is one of the most important fortresses on
the coast of the Mediterranean was concerned with the sultans and the
rulers of Egypt over the historical times in the Mamluk era, we find the
Sultan Qansuh Ghouri interested in this castle considerable interest
and increased the strength of its garrison and shipment of weapons and
gear, and when he opened the Ottoman Egypt used this castle place to
protect them and took care to preserve and made by groups of soldiers
infantry, cavalry and artillery, and the various garrisons to defend
them and then defending the gate of Egypt's northern coast and the
weakened Ottoman Empire began the castle lost its strategic importance
and defensive as a result of the weakness of its garrison, it is then
able to French expedition to Egypt led by Napoleon Bonaparte seized and
the city of Alexandria in 1798 which led to the seizure, which took over
the rest of Egypt, and when he took Muhammad Ali Pasha ruled Egypt and
worked to fortify Egypt and especially its coast North stood the renewal
of the walls of the castle, and add some of its business to fit the
development of defense of the nineteenth century AD, was the
strengthening walls and renovation of buildings and providing coastal
guns in addition to the construction of many Ataiwabi and forts that
were deployed along the northern coast of Egypt. Since the revolution of
Ahmed Orabi in 1882 and which was the results hit the city of
Alexandria on July 11, 1882, and then the British occupation of Egypt
had been vandalized Bey Citadel and the creation of cracks it, has been a
castle on this case until the Commission for the Conservation of Arab
Monuments, 1904 the work of many of the reforms and carry out a project
for the renovation work on the basis of studies carried out by
scientists of the French campaign and published in the book description
of Egypt, and also by the travelers Cassius in his book of the year
1799.












Monastery of St. Catherine




Is
located the monastery of St. Catherine St. Catherine's Monastery in
South Sinai, Egypt Mount Catherine the bottom of the highest mountains
in Egypt, near the Mount of Moses. It is said that he was the oldest
monastery in the world, is a tourist attraction high, with intention of
tourist groups from all parts of the world, which is retired, managed by
the head of the monastery, a bishop of Sinai, which is not subject to
the authority of any patriarch or complex sacred but the ties and
relations with the Patriarch of Jerusalem, the The name of the Patriarch
of Jerusalem mentioned in the masses, despite the fact that custody of
the monastery has been for long periods of the Russian Orthodox
Church, and monks and priests of the monastery of the Greeks and not
Arabs or Egyptians, like the bishops of the Roman Orthodox Church in
Jerusalem, which controlled by the Greeks from the era long. And the
Bishop of Sinai runs alongside the monastery churches and holy sites in
southern Sinai in the area of the stage and the Oasis mice and blink.



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